Arctic homeland or "Mother Africa"?

di Michael Ruzzai
cover: Vsevolod Ivanov

Summary of the conference held on Friday 24 February 2017 at Trieste.

After the previous meeting on "The ancient roots of the Indo-Europeans"Of 27/1/2017 also this, which took place thanks to the organization of Daniele Kirchmayer, was introduced by the useful and interesting notes of Fabio Calabrese, who provided a first overview of the issues in question, insisting in particular on strong conformism, ideologically oriented, of current prehistoric research. In fact, as a starting point for the conference, we can certainly say that today the academic world, and also the popular one aimed at a wider audience, is based on two assumptions that tend to present themselves as real "dogmas "Of faith, in truth anything but demonstrated: the" ascending "evolutionism in a more general biological perspective, and the Afrocentrism of human origins in that more specifically concerning our species, Homo Sapiens. We will begin by exposing some points of criticism to these two conceptual a priori and then we will move on to illustrate the more properly constructive elements of the discourse.

Octavio Ocampo, “The Evolution of Man”.

The first dogma: ascending evolutionism

The evolutionist theory, which presupposes an upward trend in terms of the complexity of biological forms, can already be questioned on the basis of a simple logical argument, brought by traditionalist authors such as Julius Evola and René Guenon, namely the impossibility that "the most you derive from less ". Indeed, how is it possible for inert matter to self-organize itself? Even in the scientific field, someone has asked the question whether the evolutionary-ascending theories are not in contrast with the second principle of thermodynamics (or Carnot's principle), also known as the "law of entropy", according to which all abandoned systems to themselves they irremediably tend to degrade towards disorder to the point of destruction and certainly not to improve themselves according to a continuous improvement. On the other hand, even the true etymological meaning of the term "evolution" derives from the Latin "volvere", that is to unroll, unroll, and therefore should rather express the concept of an unfolding of the possibilities of existence that exist in germ already a priori, without necessarily imply an upward trend. The same "chance" invoked by evolutionists, against any conception that implies the existence of a Logos superior to matter, appears as a mere ideological screen, a "fig leaf" that hides the ignorance of the deepest formative mechanisms: evolutionist researchers invoke the "very long times" that would have allowed this blind causality to produce today's forms. Too bad, however, that the times are HUGE far from what would have been necessary.

It was in fact calculated by prof. Chandra Wickramasinghe, that the probability that the simplest living organism arises "by chance" from inert matter would be 1 in 10 to 40.000 ^ (1 followed by 40.000 zeros)… Let's go more specifically. The same evolutionists tell us that the time elapsed from the "primordial soup" is equal to ONE billion years, ie 1 followed by 9 zeros. Well, the physicist Bogdanov has calculated that the time necessary for the various nucleotides to arrive by pure chance to a molecule of ribonucleic acid, RNA (which, however, is NOT a living being, enormously more complex) would have taken a number of years at least equal to 10 to the 15th (1 followed by 15 zeros, that is ONE MILLION billion years and therefore a MILLION times higher time). The mathematician Guye, on the other hand, has calculated that the possibility that another fundamental component of living organisms, that is a protein (which, however, itself is NOT a living being) is formed by pure chance, is equal to 1 out of 10 to the 161st power (i.e. 1 followed by 161 zeros) but, however, theoretically having a number of years available equal to 10 to the 243rd power (1 followed by 243 zeros). Incredibly long times, INCOMMENSURABLY longer than would be necessary and which make any recourse "to chance" simply laughable. At this point, believing in a miracle, in a creation, in an emanation, in a "descent" of something higher, or in any other way you want to define it, frankly appears as the MOST LOGICAL attitude. Among other things, it is not even true that a primitive biochemical simplicity has ever existed, given the enormous complexity even of single-celled organisms, and that we cannot even speak of a trivial ascent "from small to large", if we consider the dinosaurs extinct about 65 million years ago and replaced by much smaller species.

The species, moreover, are carriers of an infinity of characters that are all useless and in no way explainable according to the perspective of the random mutations of the genome and the fixation of these through the mechanism of natural selection: colors, shapes, scents, behaviors without any utilitarian purposes are abundantly present in Nature. Natural selection which, moreover, has been noted to be a purely conservative mechanism, in the sense that it eliminates deviants, and which therefore plays an eminently STABILIZING function on living species; also because advantageous mutations have almost never been observed, while on the contrary, there are often degenerative ones or, at the limit, neutral ones, that is, without impact on biological functions. What is contested, therefore, to the evolutionist hypotheses, is the "transforming" possibility of the species to progressively pass from one form to another (the so-called "macroevolution"), while instead there are no doubts about a certain internal plasticity of the single species , or the “micro-evolution”: that phenomenon, for example, well known by breeders to select new types, which nevertheless NEVER become a NEW species. The truth of the paleontological evidence is that up to now about 250.000 fossil species have been discovered, which in fact have a very long-lasting morphological stability, even for millions of years, without denying those slow progressive changes that ascending Darwinism necessarily presupposed.

Finally, an element of reflection can be given in this very quick overview. The peculiar elements that oversee the most macroscopic form of the various biological species, trivially what makes the living thing take on the appearance of an elephant rather than a heron, as the geneticist Giuseppe Sermonti reminds us, seem not to be found at the DNA level: this, in fact , seems to be more of an instruction manual for the construction of the basic construction elements (for example, proteins) and for the definition of detailed biochemical processes, but it does not seem to contain, as far as we know today, the information elements on the structure general organism. To give an example, it is as if the genetic code represented a very perfected and highly organized brick factory, but whose subsequent use - whether for the construction of a house, a hospital, a hotel or a stadium - belonged to ANOTHER kind of planning, placed on a higher level.

The argument of "form" among other things brings us to man, with some considerations of particular interest. Our appearance, in fact, seems somewhat generalized and not very specialized, almost "prototypical" at least for the class of mammals, that is, completely devoid of elements with a strong adaptive-environmental significance (hair, claws, teeth, etc ...); elements which, on the other hand, are abundantly present in the various "cousins" who share the taxonomic family of the hominids. This would support the idea that, contrary to what is believed to be "evolutionary", man has moved very little from an original starting point, leaving instead to other species, more or less close, a dynamic that has led them into situations more peripheral, in niches perfectly adapted to the surrounding ecosystem. But also relegating them to a situation that is now exhausted, to a "dead end" with no return. Paradoxically, it is "the monkey" that is more evolved than man, who has remained in a situation of "centrality" and "omnipotence", so much so that it has been hypothesized that Sapiens is a species with a very strong "neotenic" tendency (Louis Bolk ), that is with the persistence in adulthood of characteristics typical of early childhood if not even fetal, with all the "plasticity" that this entails.

Centrality and constancy in our form are data that, in fact, do not agree with the evolutionary idea according to which the Sapiens would be the "last cry" in the series of various Hominids, gloriously at the top of an ascending ladder, and indeed there are not a few findings that would highlight for our species an enormously greater antiquity than what is currently estimated: even if the official paleoanthropology avoids talking about it, because it cannot be explained in its evolutionary horizon, there is no shortage of finds that would go in this direction, with a temporal depth even of the order of a few million years. To name a few: on the island of Java in Trinil; in Argentina in Miramar, in Buenos Aires and on Monte Hermoso; in California at Calaveras and Table Mountain; in England at Foxhall and Ipswich; in France in La Denise and Abbeville; in Switzerland in Delemont; in Spain in Atapuerca; in Italy in Castenedolo and Savona; in Palestine in Qesem; in Africa itself, in Kenya near Lake Turkana and in Tanzania, with the famous footprints of Laetoli.


The second dogma: human Afrocentrism

Those just listed are definitely incompatible with evolutionist views and also with Afrocentric theories (the hypothesis "Out of Africa", Hereinafter for brevity OOA), which hypothesize a unique speciation of current humanity in Africa and its subsequent planetary diffusion, above all on the basis of a greater antiquity of the Sapiens finds found there (for example, Blombos, Klasies River Mouth, Border Cave ...). But in addition to the "forgotten" finds listed above, the OOA is also challenged by other findings that paleoanthropology is well aware of (Skuhl, Qafzeh, Qesem in Palestine; Jebel Faya in Arabia, Liujiang in China, Kununurru in Australia) and that appear difficult to explain from the point of view of a first extra-African migration, even dated, to be generous, 80-90.000 years ago (but it could be noted that one of the most recent formulations of OOA - reported by Spencer Wells - even reduces to 50-60.000 years ago the first exit from the continent, thus leaving ALL the sites listed above completely unexplained). Furthermore, some authors (Wolpoff and Thorne) have contested the OOA also from an archaeological point of view, noting the total absence of typically African lithic technologies (i.e. flint processing) outside the continent, which should have been brought by phantom "proto-African" migrants from south to north, east, or northeast. Similarly, on the bio-anthropological level other researchers (Richard G. Klein) have found that in general the most ancient European and Australian finds tend to highlight much more pronounced physical similarities with their descendants of historical age rather than towards these alleged ones. African ancestors; for example, in the first bone finds of our continent - Combe-Capelle and Cro-Magnon - we can find not a few characteristics still present today in modern Europeans, or at least in a good part of them. 

A more precise racial characterization therefore seems to be somewhat elusive of these "proto-Africans". In fact, to the question "which current African population would be considered the most direct descendant of this hypothetical initial group, which remained on site, while one or more of its fractions would have left the continent?" the possible answers do not appear very convincing. To stick to the main groups, we can recall that currently Africa is roughly populated by Caucasoid peoples in the Maghreb, Ethiopians in the Horn region, Khoisanids (Bushmen and Hottentots) in the south, and the "typical" Sub-Saharan Negrids in everything else. The former are the probable result of an entry from Euro-Western areas, also considering the not uncommon biondism found among various Berbers; the latter seem to be genetically closer to the Middle Eastern populations (Cavalli Sforza), the same argument can also be made for the Khoisanids, with the addition that some anthropologists at the time had even hypothesized a certain proximity to the eastern yellow populations. - Asian. Therefore, the part of the African "autochthonous", which can be classified as the most direct descendants of the initial "proto-Africans" today, would remain entrusted to the sub Saharan Negrids: of whom, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect finds of the highest antiquity. The problem is that there is generally recognized (Kurten, Canella, Biasutti, Bertaux) a rather conspicuous shortage of clearly Negrid high antiquity finds, and the available finds (perhaps, but not unequivocally, Boskop; more likely Asselar) are relatively recent; as a result of recent formation (Bernatzik, Brian, Coon, Weinert) the genesis of the entire Negrid group is considered. There is therefore a strange sub-Saharan "hiatus", not easily explained.

Therefore, when paleogenetics also claims to have "demonstrated" the African origin of Homo Sapiens, it does not take into consideration the fossil and rocketological evidence or, among these, it selects only those instrumental to its preconceived view: in any case, highlighting an interpretative dependence, honestly also admitted by the geneticists Cavalli Sforza and Barbujani, who do not allow it to draw, independently, the final conclusions of the historical-migratory reconstructions. The genetic evidence, that is, can be perfectly interpreted even in a "non-Afrocentric" horizon. For example, it was found (Paul Jordan, Steve Olson) that the undoubted greater internal heterogeneity of African populations, instead of indicating greater antiquity, and therefore ancestrality, compared to all the others on the planet, could instead be the result of a distortion statistic induced by the fact that the black continent was probably more populated than others, at least in fairly recent times: a greater number of individuals with the relative diversifications would have accumulated there, which therefore would have taken longer, compared to other areas of the world , to disappear without leaving detectable traces.

Even the fact that the Euro-Asian populations appear genetically closer to each other, can very well be explained (Gianfranco Biondi / Olga Rickards), rather than through their lesser antiquity than the hypothetical original proto-African strain, rather with a very reciprocal gene flow. more massive, a rather logical hypothesis if we look at a simple geographical map: no matter what those who speak today of "bridges" and the sea as an intermediary that brings different people together, it would seem that historically the Mediterranean Sea has rather represented a genetic barrier. Not to mention, then, that the same genetic data, understood as "static photography" and free from any historical interpretation, for example in the case of the Australian find of Lake Mungo, highlight a mitochondrial sequence, that is of a female line, more divergent than any other so far known including African ones, therefore clearly incompatible with a provenance from there. Furthermore, other studies would reveal that the populations of Melanesia would be among the most differentiated on the planet, have many genetic variants elsewhere unknown and therefore, even here, very little congruent with the OOA picture.

The various "sequences" detected are the current evidence of the various mutations, which occurred randomly in the human genome, and which identify various "haplogroups", that is essentially those sets of individuals carrying the same genetic markers and therefore of reciprocal kinship closer than other; but these mutations, it should be remembered, are in fact completely random and an essential element to pass from a "static-geographical" representation (whose evidences, in themselves, are not subject to interpretation) to a "dynamic-historical" one ( which instead imply a high level of conjecture and try to explain the temporal passages through which the current situation has been reached) is linked to the estimate of the speed at which these mutations have occurred in the genome. An assumption, which however is completely unproven, of roughly constant mutational speed in all world populations, has led today's geneticists to hypothesize an ancestral population located in Africa on the basis of the greatest number of mutations found for example in the Khoisanids (Bushmen and Hottentots ) and, consequently, to interpret as an index of less antiquity the smaller number found in other ethnic groups (for example, we Europeans): it is basically on this basis that the hypothesis of the "African Eve" was formulated at the time, female hypothetically progenitor of the mitochondrial DNA of all world populations, by Allan Wilson, then revised by Rebecca Cann and Mark Stoneking, whose conclusions, however, would not be exempt from criticism already in the merits of the sampling chosen a priori (Richard G. Klein) . But, as mentioned, the assumption of a constant mutational speed still remains a mere working hypothesis (Cavalli Sforza, Christopher B. Stringer) and indeed seems to collide with evidence that would highlight a diversity of "evolutionary" rhythms between different areas of the genome of the same species (Veronique Barriel), as well as with the different mutational speeds found as a function of the settlement latitude: significantly, it would seem that precisely in tropical areas this rhyme is accentuated, thus suggesting that the populations located there are subject to a more sustained dynamic of distancing from the genetic center of the population.

Consequently, the groups less affected by this phenomenon could be interpreted not as more recent but rather as those who remained closer to the common starting point. This, for example, could be the case of us Europeans, who in the phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular data are represented by a particularly short branch; if we do not follow the assumption of a mutation rate that is the same for all world populations, this evidence can be given the meaning, which Cavalli Sforza is also forced to admit as an alternative hypothesis, of a group that has remained rather close to the original human form. On these interpretative objections it has therefore been hypothesized that also the mitochondrial Eve must not necessarily have been part of a proto-African population nor necessarily have the age of 200.000 years that has been attributed to it (Bryan Sykes, Francesco Fedele). More recently and starting from other research parameters, that is the polymorphisms of the Y chromosome that is transmitted only through the father, the researchers Klyosov and Rozhanski have drawn conclusions completely contrary to the OOA hypotheses. The two Russians in fact found the total absence of "typically African" haplogroups from a sample of non-African people: it is true that they did not consider the fact that the OOA theory predicts a development of these lines only in Africa after the release of the first Eurasians, but on the basis of all the previous considerations it seems legitimate to ask whether it really has been established with certainty what the ancestral Y-DNA haplogroup must have been compared to all the others.

READ MORE  The Pole, the incorporation, the Androgyne

In any case, it is always Cavalli Sforza who reminds us how genetics must necessarily rely on data external to it and also how an interpretative "bidirectionality" of the data displayed on the "geno-graphic" maps (the maps of the "main components" published in his important "History and geography of human genes"): data that do not necessarily state whether the first men were African and spread to Asia or ... vice versa (!!!). Ultimately the maps describe a static situation and at most they highlight more or less close "kinship" between different groups, but they can never indicate migratory dynamics and movements: it is essential to remember that we always add them, based on other elements, external to genetics and with the support of further theories. And, in conclusion, it must also be remembered that the migratory model hypothesized by the OOA (one or more groups that left Africa, leaving a large part of the remaining population in place) is fundamentally different from the one we will see, most likely starting from the Eurasian north. and whose traces have been almost completely erased by the glacial events of the Wurmian. A Eurasian north which in fact is today almost completely uninhabited, or repopulated only relatively recently, moreover not by populations that originated there but only adapted for a few millennia (for example, the case of the Inuit); and it is therefore clear that the interpretative distortion of a demographic character mentioned above (Paul Jordan, Steve Olson), that is, that due to the conservation of some genetic lines lost elsewhere, cannot be applied to the current Arctic areas.


The cyclical view, the primordial man, the Pole

What, then, is the most appropriate model in which to frame human history and which, at the same time, overcomes both the unconvincing evolutionary-ascending and Afrocentric concepts? Authors such as Julius Evola and René Guenon have given an answer to this question, as we will see by relying on Myths and Traditions from every corner of the planet: an essential source for integrating the same scientific evidence. Listening ALSO what the "witnesses in the field" have to say, in the person of their distant heirs, about prehistoric events and trying to integrate this information with the most recent scientific investigations does not seem to me an arbitrary operation, but of simple common sense . 

The main idea that comes to us from this different perspective is that the trend of human history would not be linear-unitary, but CYCLIC: that is, it would imply the existence of MORE humanity, and the aforementioned exceptional antiquity of many Sapiens finds would demonstrate this as evidence of previous eras. Each humanity would be included in a cycle called "Manvantara", macro-period closed and separate from the others (previous and subsequent), a concept that René Guenon has taken from the Hindu Tradition with a series of reworkings on which we will not dwell here. In any case, from the Guenonian point of view, the duration of the Manvantara is approximately 65.000 years and this overall period is in turn divided into 4 Yugas (Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga, of decreasing duration in proportion 4- 3-2-1) or even in 5 Great Years (i.e. 5 periods of equal duration, each equal to about 13.000 years, or half of a complete precessional cycle); are two subdivision criteria that are not alternative but coexistent, and the second - in 5 Great Years - in my opinion could correspond to the scheme of the Greek Hesiod, who spoke of 5 Ages: Golden Age, Silver Age, Bronze Age, Age of Heroes, Iron Age.

The first consideration to be made on traditional sources regarding the theme of human origins is that none seem to confirm the evolutionist hypothesis, and not even the Afrocentric one. That is, man is never conceived as a being deriving from lower animal forms, but rather appears as something "fallen" from higher "super-human" states. In fact, if the historian of religions Mircea Eliade has opportunely highlighted the almost ecumenical theme of "nostalgia for origins", that is, that widespread feeling of melancholy remembrance of a superior original existential condition, we can recall, in this regard, the theme of first Hesiodic race, golden and that "lived as Gods", approachable to the theme of the Platonic Androgyne, perfect in its completeness, as perfect and still unitary was the original Hamsa super-caste of the Hindu Tradition, before its polarization in the following entities. Themes that allude, therefore, to a sort of divinization of what must have been the man of the beginnings, present for example in Herodotus when he speaks of the Hyperboreans defined "transparent men", or to the Chinese Li-Tze which mentions men of the north "transcendent "And" weak bones ". In Islam itself, the Hurqaliya, "land of souls" is located in the north, while in the Celtic Tradition the "land of the living" inhabited by Elves is mentioned. Hints that clearly highlight a further theme, that of a "different corporeity" of primordial man, which, moreover, would seem to be confirmed in the almost total absence of skeletal and lithic finds related to Homo Sapiens in the period 65-52.000 years ago, namely the First Great Year of the present Manvantara, the one that in the quinary subdivision would correspond, in my opinion, to the Golden Age of Hesiod.

A second theme that seems to emerge is that linked to polarity, with the concept of Axis Mundi and also a spiritual centrality (for example the Monte Meru of the Hindu primordial boreality. For example, also in the Old Testament, precisely in Isaiah 14,13 we read that the divine dwelling would be on the "mount of the assembly" which is found "in the most remote parts of the north"; however boreal lands linked to the times of the origins are also found in Tibetan myths, with Shambhala, or, again in the Hindu Tradition, the lands of Shvetadvipa and, later, of Shakadvipa, perhaps internal to the largest polar continent of Ilavrita. Iran remembers the Ayrianem Vaejo, perhaps later but still located at the highest latitudes, while in the Norse Tradition we mention Asgard, residence of the divine Aesir. In the classical tradition the lands of Thule and Hyperborea are known, the latter mentioned, in various contexts, by many authors (Hecateus of Abdera, Hecateus of Miletus, Herodotus, Hesiod, Pindar, Homer ...) while for Thule there is the famous voyage of Pytheas to Marseille; in the Latin way there are similar references in Virgil and Pliny di Vecchio. Even in the Mesoamerican contexts an original Tula is mentioned, visibly assonant with the Hellenic Thule, as well as in the gypsy myths Siberia is mentioned as a primordial paradise.

Vsevolod Ivanov.

Arctic Eden, Beringia and the first men

However, we can ask ourselves whether these localizations can be related not only to an authentically primordial moment and characterized, as mentioned, by a super-human condition and a "different corporeality" of the Being of the origins, also to a phase next in which man assumes the physiological guise of today and no longer identifies himself with the "Gods": that moment, that is, in which the Gods become the "powerful brothers of men", thus testifying that now the point of observation has passed "on this side" of the human / superhuman limit and now characterizes a corporealized form according to today's canons, biologically Sapiens. The crucial event of this passage, in my opinion, has left very precise mythical traces: it is the “cut” of Kronos which separates Uranus and Gaea with its scythe and concludes an earlier auroral phase; it is the Hamsa super-caste polarizing into the two upper castes (Brahmana, priests, and Kshatriya, warriors); it is the sleep of the still unitary Adam, from which the Female is extracted (as we will later see, further distinguished in the Lilith-Eve couple); it is Pandora who comes to wreak havoc on the indistinct Promethean humanity. In other words, that is, the Female that manifests itself appears as the element of corporeality that emerges, the data of the "sensitive" that now appears alongside the more purely "noetic", masculine one.

Hence a human corporeization that appears almost as a "precipitation" of a saturated solution, which nevertheless always occurs within the Satya Yuga, in my opinion precisely in correspondence with its half, that is, in the passage from the First to the Second Great Year of the Manvantara; obviously through this corporealization, man is now subjected to the environmental conditions proper to our plan of existence. As a consequence of this, it is therefore legitimate to ask how the adverse climatic conditions of the Arctic can be reconciled with human existence, which is moreover remembered in myths according to the canons of an "Edenic" state with pleasant characteristics. The answer is that, evidently, some tens of thousands of years ago the boreal areas were affected by conditions very different from the present ones. Meanwhile, it can be remembered that the Arctic Ocean at the time had to present a more closed hydrographic situation due to the presence of large emerged areas, a consequence of the glaciation that imprisoned millions of cubic kilometers of water with the consequent lowering of the sea level, on a global scale, of at least 120 meters; emerged areas that to the east completely prevented the connection with the Pacific Ocean (the Bering Strait was closed) and to the west greatly limited the connection with the Atlantic Ocean (large areas emerged between the British Isles and Iceland / Greenland ). Consequently, the Arctic basin had a temperature higher than today (studies by Saks, Belov, Lapina) and certainly it was not frozen, because otherwise it could not have supplied, through water evaporation, those enormous masses of humidity which, cooling down at altitude , they necessarily had to supply the Wurmian cap through the continuous, abundant, snowfalls.

But, in addition to the sea, the mainland also offers various elements testifying an almost temperate climate through plant, animal, or stratigraphic evidence highlighting surprising absence of glaciation: from Baffin Island, to northern Greenland, Norway and northern Finland, the the Pechora basin and the Russian coast on the Barents Sea, the findings of Vladimir Pitulko at the mouth of the Jenissej (dating back to 45.000 years ago), the delta of the Yana river in eastern Siberia, to arrive at the vast land of Beringia, probably luxuriant and emerged for hundreds of thousands of square kilometers. And precisely in this regard, it should be noted that recently with the name "Out of Beringia" (Spencer Wells) a scientific model has been called according to which it is hypothesized that populations that have remained sedentary in the area for a not negligible period of time, have underwent a rather marked process of genetic diversification, to leave only at a later time, and at different scans, towards more southerly destinations, both in the south-east and south-west direction. It is evident how, from our "boreal" point of view, this hypothesis is extremely interesting: even if the "Out of Beringia" theory is not posited as a real alternative to the "Out of Africa", but underlines at most a function of " sorting center ", which was important but still secondary, in my opinion this does not mean that we are faced with a non-negligible hypothesis of a human" cradle "located at significantly high latitudes, which does not appear to have been theorized before by modern scientific research. Incidentally, a little further east, in America, is the site of Old Crow in the northern Yukon, possibly dating back 50.000 years ago (Fiorenzo Facchini) which, moreover, seems to be among the oldest American sites, several of which (Topper, Taber, Monte Verde ...) have such high dates, at least 40.000 years, that they seriously question a further "dogma" of current paleoanthropology, namely the "Clovis first" (or the assumption that the Clovis culture, only 13-14.000 years ago, represent the first trace of human presence on the American continent).

These are therefore lands that were potentially suitable for supporting human presence, and in particular the area between eastern Siberia and western Alaska seems particularly interesting not only for the "Out of Beringia" model, but also for a mythical connection with as reported in the Hindu Tradition about the land of Varahi, corresponding to the third Avatara of Vishnu, the Boar (probably "descended" 52.000 years ago), in relation to which a sort of sacred "passage" from the more purely polar region to the northeastern one. Ancient Beringia could therefore have been that primordial Eden which, in the course of the Second Great Year of the Manvantara,  hosted the first "post-androgynous" corporealized humanity and perhaps a further confirmation of this can exist in the identical root "Vara" which in the nearby Iranian language means that "enclosure" that would have circumscribed the "Pairi-daeza" (interesting ref. notes by Giuseppe Acerbi), that is the "earthly paradise" of the biblical myth. Therefore paradisiacal conditions even for a humanity by now corporealized (let us remember that we are still in the Satya Yuga) and which are also reflected in similar passages of the classical Tradition: in Ovid and Virgil, in fact, we remember that ancient "eternal spring" that would testify also of another climatic-astronomical peculiarity, namely the absence of the seasons resulting from the perpendicularity of the earth's axis with respect to the ecliptic plane, also underlined by René Guenon and Julius Evola for primordial times.

The data of the "eternal spring" can also lead to considerations of an anthropological nature, asking us which human type could have developed in those particular conditions. Even though we are at high latitudes, the relative mildness of the climate does not seem consistent with the development of a type with Nordic characteristics according to current canons, which seem to have stabilized in colder contexts. Given the not excessive level of solar irradiation, on the other hand, the development of melanoderm types seems out of the question, while that of populations similar to the current East Asians does not seem to be corroborated by particularly ancient skeletal findings. Ultimately, "classical" Mongolians, Negrids and Nordics are highly specialized and, to varying degrees, quite recent types, who do not seem suitable for playing the role of early humanity.

There would remain one last group, traditionally known as the Red Race, and in fact it also seems particularly significant that Evola, when he brings photographic examples of those "remains of the prenordic race" (the primordial race of Arctic origin, strictly speaking only a little less ancient than the nucleus truly unitary and ecumenical from the outset) proposes individuals who are not at all blond or with exceptionally light pigmentation, moreover finding them largely among Native North Americans. In somewhat less strict terms, it can perhaps be said that the original lineage may have had "paleoeuropoid" or "archaic Caucasoid" characteristics (given that, as mentioned, those more specifically Europids, Negrids and Mongolids developed later ), since this type, more "generic" seems to be found almost everywhere on the planet as a substratum prior to each subsequent stratification / specialization (Biasutti, Giuffrida-Ruggeri, Grottanelli, Olson). To give another example, it would be a form not far from the current Japanese Ainu and, perhaps, to the prehistoric Combe Capelle, also defined as “Protomediterranean”, which in fact seem to predate the Cro-Magnons themselves.

Vsevolod Ivanov.

The first migrations from the North

In the world the first Sapiens finds attributable to this Manvantara begin to appear about 50.000 years ago, and therefore would testify to a very first migration “Out of Beringia” shortly after the corporealized anthropogenesis of 52.000 years ago. We can therefore think of an almost immediate dichotomy of the primordial human stock, of a first division between those who came out of Northern Eden precociously and those who remained there; and since, as mentioned above, the theme of corporeality is often approached to the concept of the Female, it cannot be excluded that a distant reference to this first separation may reside in the "duplicity" that is often compared to women. In the Iranian myth, for example, the primordial man Gayomart has two wives, one white and one black, as well as in the Semitic context it is recalled that Adam, before Eve, had the dark Lilith in consort.

And Lilith, with her sudden escape from the Earthly Paradise and in relation to some elements that would connect her to Australia (Jacques Bril, Giuseppe Sermonti), could represent that first wave of people who headed "vertically" to the south, towards the tropical areas, in such ancient times and establishing a type of civilization with a mainly chthonic / lunar sign that almost completely lost any reference to the original boreality, but not to the point of not retaining some faint traces: for example the polar memories of the Semang pygmoids Malaysians, or the distant cultural elements that the ethnologist Leo Frobenius thought he saw among the South African Bushmen. Also in the book “Il Selvaggio. Essay on human degeneration ”Silvano Lorenzoni frames the pygmoid populations as the“ first falls ”from the Nordic areas, probably the initial nucleus of the much later Negrids (as also believed by the anthropologist Carleton Coon). An early and geographically finished exit very far from the primary site that would have led these groups to expose themselves, similarly, to the first phenomena of "genetic drift" and rapid removal from the most central human trunk, still highlighting the high number of mutations that , erroneously, it is interpreted as an indication of greater antiquity rather than greater peripherality. Instead, the remaining part of humanity left to the north, in anthropological terms, could correspond to that "paleoarctic" race hypothesized by Wiklund, from which both the Europids and the Mongolids would later differ and, in genetic terms, perhaps coincide, or to represent the context within which it would then be specified, that archaic "North Eurasian" group that some recent researches would have identified at the root of ALL current Europeans.

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But after a few millennia, even this whole would in turn be divided, first of all by the populations that could be approached to Eve, who, just like a "rib" would have separated more or less laterally from an even more internal "Adamic" nucleus , however, going to occupy much less southern locations than the previous "Lilithians":  probably favored in their migrations from a climatically less rigid period, perhaps corresponding to the Laufen / Gottweig interstage, these groups would have spread above all along an east-west route, perhaps leaving a trace of their ancient unity in what today appears as the fragmented superfamily "Sinodenecaucasian" linguistics composed of Basque, some Caucasian languages, Pakistani Burushaski, Jenissei Ket, Sinotibetan and North American Na-dene. It could not be ruled out that the westernmost branch of this grouping had some relationship with the "pre-nords" hypothesized by Hermann Wirth, probably attested in subarctic-north Atlantic areas, lands that at the time must have emerged mainly in the vicinity of the Ireland-Iceland line , where Rockall's reef now lies submerged.

Furthermore, an interesting Christian tradition reports that Eve had come out of Eden and here she was tempted by the Serpent who convinced her to sin: perhaps a figurative image to symbolize the beginning of a series of contacts of the "evaici" with the "Lilithian" people, ethnic and spiritual character, which I would not exclude, could be testified by the progressive "return wave" towards the north of signs and symbols that Evola leads back to the "Southern Light". For example, one of the first statuettes of the Upper Paleolithic, that of the lion-man of Hohlenstein, in southern Germany, appears significant and could be 40.000 years old: evidence of a penetration towards the north of more southern mythical references and, moreover, in significant assonance with what was the fourth avatar of Vishnu, Narasimha, the man-lion, or the last of the Satya Yuga (and we remember that the next one, the first of the Treta Yuga, was Vamana, the dwarf: visibly approachable to the populations pygmoids that would take over shortly thereafter).

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Vsevolod Ivanov.

Conflict, Fall and abandonment of the North

Therefore, towards the end of the Paradise Age in the Atlantic sectors important and articulated phenomena must have occurred between lineages more or less directly derived from the original boreal trunk: they were the "daughters of men" who united with the "sons of God", finally generating those Western giants that could correspond to the Cro-Magnons, significantly taller than the previous Combe Capelle (Homo Aurignacensis) and that also according to Herman Wirth would be the result of the union of various more or less Nordic lineages. The achievement of the sense of an ethnic and spiritual specificity towards the more boreal and original "Adamic" strains would have led these populations to move, towards them, a conflict that the Myth recalls with the theme of the blow struck by Atalanta against the Boar , a priestly symbol, also mentioned by Renè Guenon. Still in the Hellenic context, the discord between the northeastern "Adamic" and the western "evaic" is probably also remembered in the events of the Titanomachy, a war event that finally sanctions the victory of Zeus but also the end of an Era and the advent of seasons.

The macrocosmic effects of these spiritual events, and their mutual solidarity, therefore implied as the final cause / effect the inclination of the terrestrial axis with respect to the plane of the ecliptic, the "Fall" of the celestial pole and, with it, the abandonment definitive of the Hyperborean-Eastern areas at the end of the Second Great Year of Manvantara. The "Adamic" nucleus until then remained relatively compact, also began to disperse, however maintaining a certain memory of the original unity through the common belonging of the various linguistic families deriving from it in a macro-entity that has been defined in various ways, above all "nostratic", but in my opinion best expressed by some researchers such as Dolgopolskij ("Boreal"), Andreev ("Paleoboreal") and Greenberg ("Eurasian"). In any case, immediately after the "Fall" and the loss of Nordic Eden, there came a phase of particular influence of the Cro-Magnon "Giants", who perhaps corresponded to the "bronze race" of Hesiod, which in fact was the third of his quinary series, as it is also true that we are now in the Third Great Year of the Manvantara.

The remarkable energy and vitality of this type can perhaps also find confirmation in the genetic traces observable by the "second main component" detected by Cavalli Sforza, which in fact denotes two opposite poles, one in northern Scandinavia and the other in the Pyrenean area: the latter , however, does not completely submerge the ancient debt with the lineages more directly attributable to the original Nordic lineage, since while the genetic traces of the ancient "North Eurasians" would seem to be found, as mentioned above, in ALL current Europeans, those of the more western-chromagnoid nucleus (which to a small extent may have received, in the described crossbreeding processes, also a certain amount of "Lilithian" genes from Africa) does not seem to have influenced the northeastern part of our continent. However, the Cro-Magnons would constitute the form from which different European types would have originated, including the paleo-atlantids (browns) and, in a depigmented variant, those "dalics" that Evola also remembers as a "heavy blonde breed", probably developed under the pressure of glacial rigors in times now far from the "eternal spring" of 20.000 years earlier. This strain, perhaps corresponding to the "heroic race" of Hesiod (the fourth, in his quinary scheme), would later receive numerous grafts from the ancient lighter "combecapelloid" line to finally reach the formation of the "classic" Nordic race, with "Leptomorph", that is, more slender and slender: it would have been in this "Nordic-heroic" context that the ethnolinguistic family would finally be enucleated, during the Fourth Great Year - therefore in times already distant from northeastern Eden but still Paleolithic Indo-European in its "Urheimat" near the Barents Sea, the details of which were exposed in the previous meeting on "The ancient roots of the Indo-Europeans".

Vsevolod Ivanov.


Note: for obvious practical reasons, in the conference "Arctic Homeland or Mother Africa?" of 24/2/2017 it was necessary to overlook various aspects related to the themes of origins. However, without in any way claiming to be exhaustive, in the drafting of this bibliography it was preferred to offer readers as wide a range of useful references as possible: therefore some text not directly referred to in the exposition of the article was also included, but the whose themes are in any case strictly connected to the general thread of the discourse even if it has not been possible to develop them adequately. The editions indicated are those actually consulted, but many books have now been subsequently reprinted.   

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  • AA.VV. (edited by Antoine Faivre and Frederick Tristan) - Androgynous - ECIG - 1986
  • AA.VV. (edited by Onorato Bucci) - Ancient European peoples. From unity to diversification - University Publishing of Rome-La Goliardica - 1993
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  • AA.VV. (edited by Jean Guilaine) - Prehistory from one continent to another - Gremese Editore - 1995
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  • Giuseppe Acerbi - Sumeru, the Polar Mountain in Hindu cosmography - in: Algiza, n. 7 - April 1997
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  • Giuseppe Acerbi - Introduction to the Avataric Cycle, part 2 - in: Heliodromos, n. 17 - Spring 2002
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  • Ezio Albrile - Gnostic Erotica - in: Streets of Tradition, n. 140 - October / December 2005
  • Ezio Albrile - The fall in Kenoma - in: Vie della Tradizione, n. 119 - July / September 2000
  • Ezio Albrile - Are we all children of Adam? (second part) - in: Ways of Tradition, n. 99, July-September 1995
  • Maurizio Alessandri - The animal similar to God - Luna Editore - 2000
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  • Antonio Bonifacio - The cosmic cave. The power of shamanism in paleolithic rock art - Symmetry editions - 2005
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  • Louis Charpentier - The Basque Mystery. At the origins of western civilization - The Age of Aquarius Editions - 2007
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  • Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy - The doctrine of sacrifice - Luni Editrice - 2004
  • Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy - The tree, the wheel, the lotus - Editori Laterza - 2009
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  • Nuccio D'Anna - Cosmic cycles in archaic Hellas - in: I quaderni di Avallon, n. 34 - 1995
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  • Nuccio D'Anna - The God Janus - SeaR Editions - 1992
  • Nuccio D'Anna - The cosmic game - Rusconi - 1999
  • Nuccio D'Anna - Julius Evola and the East - Seventh Seal Editions - 2006
  • Nuccio D'Anna - Parashu-Rama and Perseus - in: Arthos, n. 33-34 - 1989/1990 
  • Nuccio D'Anna - Renè Guenon and the forms of Tradition - The Circle - 1989
  • Nuccio D'Anna - An aspect of the symbolism of the cross: the “swastika” - in: Arthos, n. 15 (new series) - 2007
  • Bruno d'Ausser Berrau - Scandinavia and Africa - La Runa Study Center - 1999
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  • Luigi De Anna - The myth of the North. Classical and medieval traditions - Liguori Editore - 1994
  • Luigi De Anna - Thule. Sources and traditions - Il Cerchio - 1998 
  • Jean De Fraine - The Bible and the origin of man - Nuova Accademia Editrice - 1965
  • Giorgio de Santillana / Hertha von Dechend - Hamlet's Mill. Essay on the myth and the structure of time - Adelphi - 2000 
  • Gianfranco de Turris - Transformations of the Edenic myth - introductory essay to "Arturo Graf - The myth of the earthly paradise - Edizioni del Graal - 1982"
  • Bernardino del Boca - The dimension of knowledge - Editions The Age of Aquarius - without indication of date
  • Mario Del Gatto - The Creation, the Man, the Fall - Atanor - 1990     
  • Christine Dell'Amore - Sapiens d'Arabia - National Geographic site - 28/01/2011;
  • Deswell / Helveroi / Siegert / Svendsen - The lesson of the Arctic - in: The Sciences - December 2002
  • Giacomo Devoto - The concept of “Linguistic League” - in: “AA.VV. - Proceedings of the III International Conference of Linguists held in Milan on 6-10 September 1958 - Milanese Glottological Association - University of Milan - 1961 "
  • Alexandre Dorozynski / Thierry Pilorge - From Eden to the world - Science and Life - May 1996
  • Gianfranco Drioli - Hyperborea. Endless search for the lost homeland - Ritter - 2014
  • Aleksandr Dughin - Continent Russia - Editions under the banner of Veltro - 1991
  • Aleksandr Dughin - Siberia - in: “The Eurasia Nation”, n. 5 - June 2004;
  • Edith Ebers - The great ice age - Sansoni - 1957
  • Mircea Eliade - The myth of the eternal return - Borla - 1999
  • Mircea Eliade - The myth of reintegration - Jaca Book - 2002
  • Mircea Eliade - Images and symbols - TEA - 1997
  • Mircea Eliade - The nostalgia of the origins - Morcelliana - 2000
  • Mircea Eliade - Shamanism and the techniques of ecstasy - Mediterranean Editions - 1995
  • Mircea Eliade - Mephistopheles and the Androgyne - Mediterranean Editions - 1995
  • Mircea Eliade - Myths, dreams and mysteries - Rusconi - 1990
  • Mircea Eliade - Myth and reality - Borla - 1993
  • Mircea Eliade - History of religious beliefs and ideas. Vol. 1: From the Stone Age to the Eleusinian Mysteries  - Sansoni - 1999
  • Mircea Eliade - Treatise on the history of religions - Bollati Boringhieri - 1999
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  • Julius Evola - The mystery of the Grail - Mediterranean Editions - 1997
  • Julius Evola - The “Hyperborean mystery”. Writings on the Indo-Europeans 1934-1970 - edited by Alberto Lombardo, Quaderni di testi evoliani n. 37 - Julius Evola Foundation - 2002
  • Julius Evola - The myth of blood - Editions of Ar - 1978
  • Julius Evola - The Hermetic Tradition - Mediterranean Editions - 1996
  • Julius Evola - Metaphysics of Sex - Mediterranean Editions - 1996 
  • Julius Evola - Revolt against the modern world - Mediterranean Editions - 1988
  • Julius Evola - Symbols of Western Tradition - Arktos Oggero Editore - 1988
  • Julius Evola - Synthesis of the doctrine of race - Ar Editions - 1978
  • Fiorenzo Facchini - The path of human evolution. The discoveries and debates of paleoanthropology - Jaca Book - 1994
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  • Antoine Faivre - Esotericism and Tradition - ELLEDICI - 1999
  • Francesco Fedele - Old and new ideas about our nearby origins - in: Le Scienze, Quaderni, n. 73 “The evolution of man” - September 1993
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  • Kurt Flasch - Eve and Adam. Metamorphosis of a myth - Il Mulino - 2007
  • Jean Flori / Henri Rasolofomasoandro - Creation or evolution? - ADV Editions - 2005
  • Roberto Fondi - The critique of science and the repudiation of evolutionism - in: "Testimonials about Evola", edited by Gianfranco De Turris - Edizioni Mediterranee - 1985
  • Roberto Fondi - Organicism and evolutionism. Interview on the new scientific revolution - Il Corallo / Il Settimo Sigillo - 1984
  • Roberto Fondi / Giuseppe Sermonti - After Darwin. Criticism of evolution - Rusconi - 1980
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  • Carlo Frison - The appearance of man according to the myths about primordial races - Editrice La Bancarella - 1983
  • Carlo Frison - Biblical prehistory, or when man lost a rib - Editrice La Bancarella - 1980
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  • Leo Frobenius - History of African civilizations - Bollati Boringhieri - 1991
  • Pierre Fromentin - The men of prehistory - Massimo Milano - 1957
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  • Mario Giannitrapani - The destiny of Man is not enclosed in the mechanistic spiral of DNA - Humanity dd. 22/11/1996
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  • Mario Giannitrapani - Palethnology of Indo-European antiquities. The roots of a common feeling (part 2) - in: Quaderni di Kultur, n. 4 - 1998
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  • Renè Guenon - The Demiurge and other wise men - Adelphi - 2007
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  • Renè Guenon - The Kingdom of Quantity and the Signs of the Times - Adelphi - 1995
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  • Renè Guenon - Symbols of sacred science - Adelphi - 1990 
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  • Karoly Kerenyi - Ancient Religion - Adelphi - 2001    
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  • Victoria LePage - Shambhala. The Lost Paradise - Armenia - 1999 
  • Christophe Levalois - The symbolism of the wolf - Arktos - 1988 
  • Christophe Levalois - The land of light. The North and the Origin - Barbarossa Editions - 1988
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  • Silvano Lorenzoni - Chronos. Essay on the metaphysics of time - Carpe Librum - 2001
  • Silvano Lorenzoni - The Wild. Essay on human degeneration - Ghénos Editions - 2005 
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  • Vittorio Marcozzi - Progressive or regressive transformation in the human family? - in: The Catholic School - March / April 1951
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  • Claudio Mutti - Gentes. Peoples, territories, myths - EFFEPI - 2010
  • Claudio Mutti - Hyperborea - in: Streets of Tradition, n. 125 - January / March 2002
  • Claudio Mutti - The symbolism of the bear in arctic cultures -  in: Routes of Tradition n.  16 - October / December 1974
  • Claudio Mutti  - Vegetable theophanies at the Finni of the Volga - in: Paths of Tradition n. 17 - January / March 1975 
  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr - Man and nature - Rusconi - 1977
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  • Stephen Oppenheimer - Eden in the East - Mondadori - 2000
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